Orthodox belongs to one of largest three branches of christianity. It separated from pravoslavni2

catholics after eastern split in year of 1054. It is spread especially in Eastern Europe and in Middle East. It is typically, that it doesn’t have one main chief, as is pope for catholics. Every countrie’s or national Church is independant and it has it’s own patriarch, who is her chief.
Term orthodox omes from greek word [orthos] – the right one and [doksa] – glory
and means all those, who after their belief glorify God. Orthodox christians describe
other christians, especially catholics, with word heterodoxis – ones, who glorify God in
different way.
Orthodox religion is divided into two larger groups of Churches:

  1. First group is called Eatern orthodox Church.
  2. Second group is called Oriental orthodox Church or Old orthodox Church.

Eastern orthodox Church recognize all beliefs, common to christian Churches from first centuires – especially belifs,
accepted on first seven ecumenic councils and beliefs, contained niceic-instanbul creed. In addition, there exists special beliefs or religious teachings of eastern orthodox churches:

  1. Recognition of apostolic succession. Orthodox churches put emphasis on that, there is God’s honour, which passed
    from Jesus to apostols and then passed with laying hands at priesly ordination in the continous chain to today’s
    orthodox priests and bishops..
  2. Belief that orthodox patriarch are equal to each other. Before great split, they recognized also Roman pope for one of equal patriarchs – they recognized his honorary title “the first among equal” (“primus inter pares”). Today the first among equal is Istanbul’s patriarch.
  3. Belief in seven sacraments and they can be awarded only by priests. Sacraments in orthodox church are called also sacred secrets, because they mean things, which exceed regular human understanding. In orthodox church they believe that it has no sense to study meaning of sacraments with mind (as they do catholics). With sacraments you must simply follow God’s will. Sacraments are:
  • baptism
  • eucharist
  • anointment with myrrh (confirmation)
  • confession
  • sick anointing
  • law ( marriage)
  • priestly ordination
  1. Belief, that Holly Spirit comes only from Father God.
  2. Belief, that God must be worshipped by fasting. Orthodox people do fast frequently than most of other christians.
  3. Belief, that it is right to worship saints on holly avatars, if this is prayer toward one God (with help) of saints and avatars. Relationship of orthodox people toward avatars is much deeper than in catholicism.
  4. Belief that it is right to worship God’s mother Mary. In orthodox caledar there are lot of feasts devoted to Mary.

Among Oriental orthodox Churches (or Old orthodox Churches) are considered those Churches, who recognize only
first three ecumenic councils, and reject conclusions of fourth – calcedonic council. Because of that we name them as
Precalcedonic Churches.
In this group are following Churches:

  • Armenian apostolic Church
  • Aleksandria coptic Church
  • Etiopian orthodox Church
  • Eritreian orthodox Church
  • Indian orthodox Church
  • Sirian orthodox Church

These Churches rejected doctrine, that Jesus has two natures: god’s and human. On Calcedonia council they used term monophysitis for those who claimed that Jesus has just one nature. Monophysitism was then in Roman empire prohibited,
but it remain in before mentioned Churches. Today in those Churches prefer to use term miafisitism – base of their believing is that there are divinity and humaneness in Jesus joined in one nature. In 20. century many look at this diffrently: at meeings between catholic pope and oriental patriarchs they accepted common statement, that this is more difference
in way of expressiont than difference in belif.

Assyrian church

Often, Assyrian church is treated as belonging to Oriental orthodox Church,
but this is wrong, becuase regarding teaching it differs from before mentioned Churches. Assyric Church separated iteself from other christian Churches, when it didn’t want to recognize conclusions of third ecumenical
council. By believing, the Assyrian Church was near nestorianism. Essence
of nestorianism is seperating Jesus into two persons: Jesus as human and
Jesus as God. Both persons existed in same body, but not both vere active.
Mary was mother of Jesus the man, but not mother of God. Miracles were
made by Jesus the God, but on cross, Jesus the man suffered. This is
simplified explanation, but as we see there is mostly difference in way of expression. Assyrian religious leader Babai the Big (551 – 628) has brought Assyrian beliefs to western belifs in Jesus, who has one personality and two natures: godly and human.|